The basic trend of the A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS is carrying out scientific investigations and applied developments in topical problems of condensed matters physics, including semiconductor and insulator physics, physics of low-dimensional systems, prior scientific directions, element base of microelectronics, opto-, nanoelectronics, quantum computers, topical problems of optics and laser physics.
The contemporary scientific-technical progress is considerably determined by the development of electronics whose base is the advancement of fundamental sciences - first solid and semiconductor physics. The latest achievements in these fields are connected with physics of low-dimensional structures and developments in nanostructures fabrication with a principally new functional potential for nano- and optoelectronics, communication means, new information technologies, measurement devices, etc. The most outstanding achievements in this field were encouraged with Noble prizes in physics: 1985 - discovery of Hall quantum effect; 1986 - methods of electron and tunnel atomic resolution microscopy; 1998 - Hall fractional quantum effect; 2000 - development of semiconductor heterostructures and intergral microcircuits.
Further development of technology opened new possibilities for construction using zone and wave function engineering and further fabrication of nanostructures assisted with modern hi-techs (superlattices, quantum wells, dots and threads, quantum contacts, atomic clusters, etc.) with the electron spectrum and properties necessary for studying new physical phenomena or for the corresponding applications. Fabrication of nanostructures is based on brand-new technological achievements in the field of construction - at the atomic level of solid surface and multilayer structures with a set electron spectrum and necessary electrical, optical, magnetic and other properties. The required zone structure of such artificial nanomaterials is provided with a choice of substances from which separate structure's layers are fabricated (zone engineering), transversal layer sizes (dimensional quantization), a change in the degree of interlayer connection (wave function engineering).
Alongside with quantum-dimensional planar structures (2D electron gas in quantum wells, superlattices), one- and zero-D quantum objects are being intensively investigated (quantum threads and dots), and the focus on them is connected with hopes for the discovery of new physical phenomena and, as a consequence, for new possibilities of effective control of electron and light flows in such structures. The element base, the ground of which lies in the use of various low-dimensional structures, is most perspective for new generation electron devices, when quantum-mechanical origin of quasi-particles begins to manifest itsef in the transfer to nanometer systems in a solid body. As a result, a principally new situation upstairs, e.g. when quantum effects (dimensional quantization, confinement, tunneling, interference of electron states, etc.) play the key role in physical processes of such objects and in the function of devices on their base.
According to many prognoses, it is the development of nanotechnologies that will outline the image of the XXI century, - just like the discovery of atomic energy, invention of transistor and laser determined the image of the XX century. Nanotechnologies are to resolve the following tasks of modern semiconductor electronics: increase of computing systems production output and, for the prospect, development of quantum computer, increase of connection channels transmission capacity, increase of information memory volume and quality of information reflection systems with a simultaneous decrease of energy consumption; widening the potential of sensor and energy-saving devices; increase in the share of using electron and optoelectron components in biological, medical, chemical, machinery and other technologies.